Ok this is gonna be more than you asked for:
First "The Caddy"...I don't recall a rampage.
"The Nap" was close
No phone banging,just the classic delivery)
GEORGE: Jerry, I'm trapped under my desk. Steinbrenner is in the room. You got to help me.
JERRY: Who is this?
"The Boyfriend" mentioned above is close but Kramer, not Jerry (but with the hitting and the phone booth):
GEORGE: (Frantically) Jerry, Jerry?
GEORGE: Kramer put Jerry on the phone.
KRAMER: (Angrily) Yeah, look I'm in the middle of something. Call back.
GEORGE: Kramer!! Kramer no!!
GEORGE: hitting phone
A parody in "The Dealership" (classic all the elements, except with Jerry and Elaine):
JERRY: (Over the phone) Elaine, you’ve got to get back down to the dealer. Puddy is screwin’ me on this car, which is yellow now!
ELAINE: (Jokingly mimicking Jerry) Who is this?
JERRY: (Banging the phone against the booth) Elaine!
(Elaine flinches with every loud banging noise)
And the closest I could find is "The Checks" (Jerry mixes up the "who is this?" bit)
GEORGE: (panicked and rushed) Jerry! The Japanese guys had sake in the
hot-tub! You gotta get 'em outta the drawers and get 'em down here, or I
don't have a focus group to sell the pilot to Japanese TV!
JERRY: (kidding) Uncle Leo?
GEORGE: (scream) Jerry!!
George begins hammering the phone against the kiosk. Jerry lifts the phone
away from his ear at the noise.